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Jeypore Sugar company was incorporation on 29th July 1936
Company started a sugar unit at Rayagada, Koraput District, Orissa.
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A REPORT ON SINGLE BUD SEED NURSERY PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION:

The Sugarcane is a very hardy crop, gives an assured income without loss which needs less care compared to other commercial crops. In view of these advantages, most of the farmers prefer to plant cane at least in 50% of the area available to them.

During the last few years, the agricultural practices are changing enormously. The main problem is the labour shortage and consequential higher cost of cultivation because of higher labour cost.

Table 1: Cane operations wise cost and percentage.

Cane cultivation operation Expenditure(Rs.) Percentage
1. Land preparation 3500 7.75
2. Seed & sowing 8500 to 12000 22.50
3. Inter-cultivation & weeding 4500 9.85
4. Manures 4500 9.85
5. Propping, Pl.Protection & Irrigation 5250 11.50
6. Harvesting & Transporting 15000 33.00
7. Watch & ward, interest on capital 2500 5.55
TOTAL COST OF CULTIVATION 45750 100
8. Land lease per one year 14000 23.40

To reduce the cost of cultivation, which is the present need of the cane farmer, we have introduced many improved agronomic techniques and followed different farmer friendly and suitable procedures. The Jeypore Sugar Co. Ltd, (V.V.S.Sugars), Chagallu is continuously making efforts and intensifying cane cultivation, to get the best benefit of low cost inputs, less labor requirement and increased cane production.

In this regard, we have experimented on reducing the cost of cultivation and labor requirement for taking up cane plantation. We have been concentrating on the possibilities of minimizing the labour along with saving the inputs. The seed material usage and the various planting techniques were generalized by the State research stations in Andhra Pradesh, i.e., planting three buded setts in the furrows @ 3.5 tonns per one acre.

We have focused on the seed saving technology and foregone a critical study for about three years to arrive a standardized procedure that can be successful in well drained garden soils, upland areas where irrigation sources are available. As we have observed that, there is a variation of eight tons in the average yields of Plant and ratoon crops in these soils, due to ill poor ratoon management. To improve ratoon yields, we can utilize the same seedlings developed through this technology for gap filling purpose.

The cost incurred for planting one acre of Sugarcane by general method of planting is approximately Rs. 10,000/- to Rs. 12,000/-, which occupies 23% of the total cost of cultivation of Sugarcane. Even the inputs and labour required are more in general planting method.

GENERAL METHOD OF PLANTING (TAKEN DURING 2009-10 SEASON)


1. The seed material required is 4 tonns per acre @ Rs. 1900/- per tonn is Rs. 7600/-
2. For harvesting and loading the seed cane Rs. 800/- @ Rs. 200/- per tonn. (2 men+4 women) Rs. 800/-
3. Transportation (4 men) Rs. 600/-
4. Stripping of leaves, Cutting and Rs. 3000/- Planting in furrows (on contract basis)
(4 men+10 women)
Rs. 3000/-
Total (10 men+14 women) Rs. 12000/-

SINGLE BUD SEEDLINGS NURSERY METHOD

The steps involved in development of Single bud seedlings plantation are

1. Harvesting the seed cane with brush cutter
2. Single budded setts preparation.
3. Transportation of single bud setts from harvesting spot to nursery bed.
4. Bagging and stacking the setts for germination.
5. Seedlings nursery preparation.
6. Seedlings plantation.

We will discuss elaborately the steps involved in this method of planting and also the inputs required.

1. SEED CANE HARVESTING WITH BRUSH CUTTER:

Seven to eight months aged healthy crop is selected. Harvesting the seed cane can be done either manually or with brush cutter. Harvesting with brush cutter minimizes man power requirement. It not only reduces man power utilization but also improves efficiency of labour. It is observed that, On an average it is possible to harvest 2.5 tons per day by two persons by using brush cutter. But with manual harvesting one person can cut less than one ton of cane per day. By utilizing brush cutter the productivity of each person has gone up by 50%i.e., the efficiency of labor has improved from 0.833 tonns for each labor in manual harvesting to 1.25 tonn for each labor in mechanical harvesting.

HARVESTING CANE WITH BRUSH CUTTER

Seed harvesting @ 2.500 tonns per day by two men labour. 2 men labour can harvest the seed cane, cut it to single bud setts, load in gunny bags for stacking.

2. Single bud setts preparation:

The seed cane is cut in to single budded setts using the seed cutter. Using the seed cutter will efficiently conserve time and labor.

SINGLE BUD SETTS CUTTING WITH SEED CUTTER HAVING Hp ELECTRIC MOTOR

3. Bagging and stacking the setts for Germination.

After loading single budded setts into gunny bags, they can be carried to the shaddy place near to the seed nursery plot and piled. The gunny bags should be watered thoroughly every 12 hours and covered by thick polythene sheets to control temperature, humidity and airflow. After 6-7 days the buds in the single budded setts sprout and we can also observe the shoot roots from the nodal region of each sett. At this stage the setts are ready for seed nursery preparation. Utmost care should be taken to maintain temperature and humidity in the bags for good germination of the setts.

SEGREGATING THE SPROUTED SETTS FOR PLANTING IN POLYTRAYS

4. Seed nursery preparation:

For raising seed nursery, HDPE trays containing 50 cavities, filling material should be kept ready.

To fill in the cavities of the tray a mixture Coir pith, enriched press mud cake, neem cake, bio-fertilizers, Trichoderma viridae, Single super phosphate, vermicompost etc can be decomposed for one month and used as filler material. Then the germinated single budded setts are planted in each cavity.

FILLING POLYTRAYS WITH DECOMPOSED FILLER MATERIAL AND SINGLE BUD SETTS

To plant in one acre of land, it requires 10000 plantlets. The germinated single budded setts are planted with the sprout showing upwards in the cavity. The labor required for preparing seed nursery for one acre is 6 women. Then the trays are placed in rows and tagged with the particulars of date and variety.

The trays must be watered daily. After 30 days of planting these single budded setts grow into plantlets of 20-30 cms length with five to six leaves.

5. Seedlings Plantation:

After 30-45 days, these plantlets having shoot root are ready for planting in the main field. Before planting these plantlets, the leaves of each plantlet have to be peeled off. After the main plot, which is ploughed thoroughly, ridges and furrows are made with spacing of 4 ft distance between the pairs and 1 ft between the paired rows with 1 to 2 ft between the plantlets. One bag of DAP per acre is to be applied in the furrows before the plantlets are planted. The plantlets have to be planted on the collar part of the ridges, so that the water, if any stagnated in the furrows may not damage the plantlets. Necessary irrigations have to be given within week intervals until the plantlets are established.

It requires 6 women labor for planting the seedlings per acre. Thus the seed nursery method of planting is more advantageous than general method of planting. The cost can be reduced by 36% than the general method of planting. The labor can be reduced from 10 men and 14 women in general planting method to 3 men and 12 women in seed nursery method of planting.

The cost of planting in one acre Sugarcane crop in Seed nursery method of planting is furnished here under.

SEEDLING NURSERY METHOD OF PLANTING:


1. Seed material required is one tonn per acre Rs. 1500/-
2. Harvesting,  loading and Transportation:
a. By Manual Labor: 3 men labor x 150/- each

or

b. By Brush cutter:  2 men labor x 150/-
300/-
Petrol consumption for harvesting 1 tonn 2 x 50/- per litre 100/-
Total charges for harvesting, loading & transport 400/-
3. Single budded  sett preparation: Rent charges for seed cane cutters 5 Nos x Rs. 100/ each cutter per day 500/-
Electrical charges  for seed cane cutters @ Rs.30/- per each cutter per day 150/-
Gunny bags for setts bagging and stacking 20 bags x Rs. 12/- each gunny bag 240/-
4. Seed nursery preparation: HDPE trays with 50 cavities each 200 Nos Rs. 18/- each tray can be reused three times i.e., Rs.6/- per tray x 200 trays 1200/-
Filling material (Soil or Coir pith) 1000/-
Rs. 3000 per load coir pith can be utilized for three acres. Labor for seed nursery preparation 6 women labor x Rs. 70/- per day 420/-
5. Seedlings plantation:6 women labor x Rs. 70/- per day 420/-
TOTAL ( 3 men and 12 women) 6400/-

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